Resource-efficient Cities - often called Eco-Cities - ensure that their socio-economic development is significantly decoupled from resource exploitation and ecological impacts. They accomplish this by minimizing the required inputs of all natural and human resources within their area, including water, air, soil, nutrients, minerals, materials, flora and fauna, ecosystem services, and social and financial resources.
Optimizing urban resource management includes saving such resources from being destroyed, overused or polluted, managing them in the most efficient and sustainable way, and contributing to their improved quality, replenishment and restoration.
Productive Cities go beyond improving the efficiency of current or future urban systems, including new cities or new urban developments, with the aim of becoming net productive systems (in ecological, economic and social terms). A
Productive City thus decreases its dependency and extractive burden on international resource chains, as well as its reliance on its peri-urban and regional hinterlands.