Examples of the change cities face include natural and industrial disasters, environmental emergencies, economic shocks, climate change impacts, drastic
demographic changes and other unforeseen challenges.
Building resilience requires identification and assessment of hazard risks, reducing vulnerability and exposure, and increasing resistance, adaptive capacity, and emergency preparedness.
The Future Resilience for African Cities and Lands (FRACTAL) project started on the 1st of April 2015, primarily aiming to advance scientific knowledge on the regional response to global climate change. This is done by bridging the divide between research and decision-making at the city-region scale. The project will run until the 31st of March 2019. Thus far, the project has successfully developed reports on the main challenges and vulnerabilities related to a) climate change, b) water and storm water, c) energy and d) food security in the respective targeted cities.